Sunday, September 30, 2007

Kenneth Pomeranz
Kenneth Pomeranz is a professor in the history department at the University of California, Irvine in the US. He received his Ph.D. from Yale University in 1988. Most of his research focuses on China and its economy.

Saturday, September 29, 2007

The Institut für Sexualwissenschaft was an early private sexology research institute in Germany from 1919 to 1933. The name is variously translated as Institute of Sex Research, Institute for Sexology or Institute for the Science of Sexuality. The infamous Nazi book-burnings (Bücherverbrennung) in Berlin included the archives of the Institute.
The Institute was a non-profit foundation situated in the Tiergarten in Berlin's In den Zelten. It was headed by Jewish doctor Magnus Hirschfeld (1868-1935). Since 1897 he had run the Wissenschaftlich-humanitäres Komitee (Scientific-Humanitarian Committee), which campaigned on conservative and rational grounds for gay legal reform and tolerance. The Committee published the long-running journal Jahrbuch fur sexuelle Zwischenstufen. Hirschfeld was also a researcher; he collected questionnaires from 10,000 people, informing his book Die Homosexualität des Mannes und des Weibes (1914). He built a unique library on same-sex love and eroticism.
After the Nazis gained control of Germany in the 1930s, the institute and its libraries were destroyed as part of a government censorship program.

Institut für Sexualwissenschaft Transgender pioneers
In late February 1933, as the moderating influence of Ernst Röhm weakened, the Nazi Party launched its purge of homosexual (gay, lesbian, and bisexual; then known as homophile) clubs in Berlin, outlawed sex publications, and banned organised gay groups. As a consequence, many fled Germany (e.g. Erika Mann). In March 1933 the Institute's main administrator, Kurt Hiller, was sent to a concentration camp.
On 6th May 1933, while Hirschfeld was on a lecture-tour of the U.S., the Deutsche Studentenschaft made an organised attack on the Institute of Sex Research. A few days later the Institute's library and archives were publicly hauled out and burned in the streets of the Opernplatz. Around 20,000 books and journals, and 5,000 images, were destroyed. Also seized were the Institute's extensive lists of names & addresses. In the midst of the burning Joseph Goebbels gave a political speech to a crowd of around 40,000 people. The leaders of the Deutsche Studentenschaft also proclaimed their own Feuersprüche ('fire decrees against the un-German spirit'). Books by Jewish writers or with an anti-war theme (e.g. those by Erich Maria Remarque) from local public libraries and the Humboldt University were also burned.
There were many other small book-burnings organised around Germany on the same night; including at Munich's Konigplatz. By the 22nd May book-burnings had happened in Heidelberg, Frankfurt, Göttingen, Cologne, Hamburg, Dortmund, Halle, Nuremberg, Würzburg, Hannover, Münster, Königsberg, Koblenz, and Salzburg - and the Gestapo were confiscating public and private libraries to be destroyed in paper mills.
The buildings were later taken over by the Nazis for their own purposes. They were a bombed-out ruin by 1944, and were demolished sometime in the mid 1950s. Hirschfeld tried, in vain, to re-establish his Institute in Paris, but he died in France in 1935.
While many fled into exile, the radical activist Adolf Brand made a brave stand in Germany for five months after the book burnings. Finally the persecution became too much, and in November 1933 he was forced to announce the formal end of the organised homosexual emancipation movement in Germany. On June 28, 1934 Hitler conducted a murderous purge of gay men in the ranks of the S.A. wing of the Nazis, and this was followed by stricter laws on homosexuality and the round-up of homosexuals. It is hard to imagine that the address lists seized from the Institute did not aid Hitler in these actions. Many tens of thousands of arrestees found themselves, ultimately, in slave-labour or death camps. Others, such as John Henry Mackay, committed suicide.
One of the books known to have been burned on the Opernplatz was the works of the Jewish poet Heinrich Heine; one of his most famous lines is now: "Where they burn books, they will, in the end, burn human beings too" (1822).

Nazi era
The charter of the institute had specified that in the event of dissolution, any assets of the Dr. Magnus Hirschfeld Foundation (which had sponsored the Institute since 1924) are to be donated to the Humboldt University of Berlin. Hirschfeld also wrote a personal will while in exile in Paris, leaving any remaining assets to his students and heirs Karl Giese and Li Shiu Tong (Tao Li) for the continuation of his work. However, neither stipulation was carried out. The West German courts found that the foundation's dissolution and the seizure of property by the Nazis in 1934 was legal. The West German legislature also retained the Nazi amendments to anti-homosexual law §175a, making it impossible for surviving homosexuals to claim restitution for the destroyed cultural center.
Karl Giese committed suicide in 1938 when the Germans invaded Czechoslovakia and his heir, lawyer Karl Fein, was murdered in 1942 during deportation. Li Shiu Tong lived in Switzerland and the United States until 1956, but as far as is known, he did not attempt to continue Hirschfeld's work. Some remaining fragments of data from the library were later collected by W. Dorr Legg and ONE, Inc. in the U.S. in the 1950s.

After WWII

Institut für Sexualwissenschaft Notes

History of gays in Nazi Germany and the Holocaust Further reading

Rosa von Praunheim (Dir.) The Einstein of Sex (Germany, 2001). (About Magnus Hirschfeld - English subtitled version available).

Friday, September 28, 2007

Sign (semiotics)Sign (semiotics)
In semiotics, a sign is defined as, "...something that stands for something else, to someone in some capacity." (Marcel Danesi and Paul Perron, "Analyzing Cultures".) It may be understood as a discrete unit of meaning, and includes words, images, gestures, scents, tastes, textures, sounds — essentially all of the ways in which information can be communicated as a message by any sentient, reasoning mind to another.
The nature of signs has long been discussed in philosophy. Initially, within linguistics and later semiotics, there were two general schools of thought: those who proposed that signs are dyadic, and those who proposed that signs are interpreted in a recursive pattern of triadic relationships.

Dyadic signs
Charles Peirce (1839-1914) proposed a different theory. Unlike Saussure who approached the conceptual question from a study of linguistics and phonology, Peirce was a Kantian philosopher who distinguishes "sign" from "word", and characterizes it as the mechanism for creating understanding. The result is not a theory of language, but a theory for the production of meaning that rejects the idea of a stable relationship between a signifier and its signified. Rather, Peirce believed that signs establish meaning through recursive relationships that arise in sets of three. The first three distinct components he identifies were:
Peirce explained that signs mediate the relationship between their objects and their interpretants in a triadic mental process. Firstness is a general state of mind in which there is awareness of the environment, a prevailing emotion, and a sense of the possibilities. This is the mind in neutral, waiting to formulate thought. Secondness moves from possibility to greater certainty shown by action, reaction, causality, or reality. Here the mind identifies what message is to be communicated. Thirdness is the mode of signs shown in representation, continuity, order, and unity. The signs thought most likely to convey the intended meaning are selected and the communication process is initiated. This will involve either interpersonal behaviour using nonverbal systems to supplement verbal meaning through intonation, facial expression, or gesture, or as in the exercise of producing this page, the writing and iterative editing process to arrive at the final selection of words now appearing.
This process is reversed in the receiver. The neutral mind acquires the sign. It recovers from memory the object normally associated with the sign and this produces the interpretant. This is the experience of intelligibility or the result of an act of signification (not necessarily as the signified in the sense intended by Saussure). When the second sign is considered, the initial interpretant may be confirmed, or new possible meanings may be identified. As each new sign is addressed, more interpretants may emerge.
But, Peirce also refers to the ''ground'' of a sign. This is the idea or principle which determines how the sign represents its object, e.g. as in literal and figurative language. The triadic relation between the ground, object, and interpretant of a sign may have its own signification, which may produce another triadic relation between the relation itself, its signfication, and the interpretation of that signification. Hence, as phrased by Jean-Jacques Nattiez (1990: 7), "the process of referring effected by the sign is infinite."
According to Gilles-Gaston Granger (1968: 114), Peirce's representamen is, "...a thing which is connected in a certain way to a second sign, its 'object', in such a way that it brings a third sign, its 'interpretant,' into a relationship with the same 'object,' and this in such a way that it brings a fourth sign into a relationship with this same 'object,' and so on ad infinitum."
According to Nattiez, writing with Jean Molino, this tripartite definition is based on the "trace" or neutral level, Saussure's "sound-image" (or "signified", thus Peirce's "representamen"). Thus, "a symbolic not some 'intermediary' in a process of 'communication' that transmits the meaning intended by the author to the audience; it is instead the result of a complex process of creation (the poietic process) that has to do with the form as well as the content of the work; it is also the point of departure for a complex process of reception (the esthesic process that reconstructs a 'message'"). (ibid, p.17)
Molino and Nattiez's diagram:

Poietic Process Esthesic Process
"Producer" Trace Receiver

(Nattiez 1990, p. 17)
Peirce's theory of the sign therefore offered a powerful analysis of the signification system and its codes because the focus was on the cultural context rather than linguistics which only analyses usage in slow-time whereas, in the real world, there is an often chaotic blur of language and signal exchange during human semiotic interaction. Nevertheless, the implication that triadic relations would cycle "infinitely" leads to a level of complexity not usually experienced in the routine of message creation and interpretation. Hence, different ways of expressing the idea have been developed.

object: anything that can be thought, whether as a concept or thing, so long as it is capable of being encoded in a sign;
representamen: the sign that denotes the object (cf. Saussure's "signifier"); and
interpretant: the meaning obtained by decoding or interpreting the sign which may be:

  • immediate, i.e. the denotative meaning,
    dynamical, i.e. the meaning actually produced by the sign, or
    final, i.e. the meaning that would be produced if the sign were properly understood.

Thursday, September 27, 2007

Tyler Cowen (COW-en) (b. January 21, 1962) occupies the Holbert C. Harris Chair of economics as a professor at George Mason University and is co-owner, with Alex Tabarrok, of the popular economics blog Marginal Revolution. He currently writes the "Economic Scene" column for the New York Times.

Tyler Cowen Dining Guide
Cowen's economic and political ideologies seem to stem largely from his background in the libertarian Austrian School. He has been classified as a "libertarian bargainer" - someone of libertarian ideals who is not so radical that he cannot influence the "currently powerful" (Klein, December 22, 2003).

Wednesday, September 26, 2007

War of the Sicilian Vespers Background and Sicilian Vespers
Soon after the Vespers itself, the Sicilians turned to Peter of Aragon to deliver them from French dominion. An Aragonese fleet under Peter himself had landed at Collo, now in eastern Algeria, and to those troops the Sicilians sent envoys. Peter was offered the throne of Sicily and accepted. Pope Martin had meanwhile refused to help the Sicilian communes and the rebels were excommunicated, as was the Byzantine emperor and the Ghibellines of northern Italy.
Charles gathered his forces, abandoning Crusading hopes, in Calabria and made a landing near Messina and began a siege. Five months after the Vespers, on 30 August, Peter landed at Trapani. He quickly marched into Palermo and, on 4 September, received the homage of the Sicilians and confirmed their ancient privileges. Only the vacancy of the Palermitan archdiocese prevented a coronation. Charles was still besieging Messina when Peter's forces first met him. Charles was forced to vacate the isle by the end of October and was thenceforth restricted to the mainland. The pope then excommunicated the Aragonese king and deprived him of his kingdom (18 November).
Peter pressed his advantage and by February 1283 he had taken most of the Calabrian coastline. Charles, perhaps feeling desperate, sent letters to Peter demanding they resolve the conflict by personal combat. The invader accepted and Charles returned to France to arrange the duel. Both kings chose six knights to settle matters of places and dates. A duel was scheduled for 1 June at Bordeaux. A hundred knights would accompany each side and Edward I of England would adjudge the contest; the English king, heeding the pope, refused to take part.

War of the Sicilian Vespers Aragonese invasion of Italy

Main article: Aragonese Crusade Sicily against Naples and Aragon

Tuesday, September 25, 2007

Agha PetrosAgha Petros
Agha Petros Elia of Baz (Syriac: ܐܓܐ ܦܜܪܘܣ; born 1 April 1880, died 2 February 1932) was an Assyrian General during World War I. Petros was born in the Lower Baz village, Ottoman Empire. He completed his elementary education in his village school and went to Urmia to attend one of the European missionary schools. He spent three years in the United States. He was well learned in the Assyrian, Turkish, Arabic, French, Persian, English, and Russian languages. Due to his language skills, he was employed as secretary by the Turkish Consulate in Urmia. In 1909 he was appointed Turkish Consul. He was exiled by British authorities in what is now Iraq and resided in Toulouse, France. He participated in the League of Nations Peace Conference, October 26, 1923. He was poisoned and died in France on February 2, 1932.

Military history
Agha Petros defeated the Turks in Sauj Bulak and drove them back to Rowanduz. Agha Petros had no real control over Assyrians or Armenians, and was indeed greatly mistrusted by many of them. There was deep disunion in the ranks, instead of posting a force to contain the Turks who he had defeated he moved his forces to Sain Kala which reached seven days after the British detachment retired.

Monday, September 24, 2007

A philanthropist is someone who engages in philanthropy; that is, someone who donates his or her time, money, and/or reputation to charitable causes. The term may apply to any volunteer or to anyone who makes a donation, but the label is most often applied to those who donate large sums of money or who make a major impact through their volunteering, such as a trustee who manages a philanthropic organization.
A philanthropist may not always find universal approval for his/her deeds. Common accusations include supporting an unworthy cause (such as funding art instead of fighting world hunger) or having selfish motivation at heart (such as avoiding taxes or attaining personal fame).

Philanthropist Some notable philanthropists
For a longer list, see Category: Philanthropists.

Jane Addams ~ co-founder of the Hull House settlement house in Chicago.
Howard Ahmanson, Jr. ~ multi-millionaire philanthropist and financier of the causes of many conservative Christian cultural, religious and political organizations.
William Allen - founded and endowed many institutions and causes including 'Schools of Industry' at Lindfield and Newington Academy for Girls.
Michael Bloomberg ~ Donations include over USD$300 million to Johns Hopkins University.
Bono ~ co-founder of Product Red and of the One Campaign for the abolition of AIDS and poverty in Africa.
Warren Buffett ~ pledged USD$30.7 billion worth of Berkshire Hathaway stock to the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.
Nicholas Murray Butler - president of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace from 1925 to 1945.
Andrew Carnegie ~ donated money to build over 2500 libraries world-wide. Founder of The Carnegie Foundations and the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
Anthony Ashley Cooper, 7th Earl of Shaftesbury - chairman of the Ragged Schools Union (during the Victorian era).
Anthony J. Drexel ~ founder of Drexel University
Maulana Dr. Abdul Sattar Edhi ~ head of the Edhi Foundation in Pakistan.
Eric Edmeades ~ founder of the Build a School initiative in Tanzania.
Marc S. Ellenbogen, Chairman, The Global Panel Foundation; co-founder The Prague Society
Edsel Ford ~ co-founder of the Ford Foundation.
Henry Ford ~ co-founder of the Ford Foundation.
Bill Gates ~ co-founder of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
Melinda Gates ~ co-founder of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
J. Paul Getty ~ funded the construction of the Getty Villa, the original Getty Museum, and donated his art collection to it. Upon his death, left his fortune to the Getty Museum, which eventually expanded to the Getty Center in Los Angeles.
Johns Hopkins ~ founder of the Johns Hopkins University and the Johns Hopkins Hospital
Amal Hijazi ~ a Lebanese singer, who is known for her philanthropy
Yusuf Islam (also known as Cat Stevens) ~ founder of Islamic schools, Muslim Aid and Small Kindness.
Juliette Gordon Low~ Also known as "Daisy", founded Girl Scouts of the USA in 1912.
Catherine T. MacArthur ~ co-founder of the MacArthur Foundation.
John D. MacArthur ~ co-founder of the MacArthur Foundation.
Paul Mellon ~ major benefactor of arts and education, and co-founder of the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation.
Ailsa Mellon-Bruce ~ co-founder of the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation.
Mary Louise Milliken Childs ~ Builder of the Milliken Memorial Community House, the first privately donated community house in America
Samuel Morley MP ~ founded Morley College, London and endowed other institutions and causes
Jamie and Karen Phelps Moyer ~ founded the Moyer Foundation to assist non-profit organizations in raising money for children with serious distresses
Sidney Myer ~ Founder of the Iconic Australian Department store chain Myer
Linus Pauling ~ donated time and effort and spent personal funds to bring about the worldwide ban on above ground nuclear weapons testing.
Charles Pratt ~ founder of Pratt Institute.
Sir David Robinson ~ founder of the Robinson Charitable Trust, and of Robinson College.
John D. Rockefeller ~ founder of the Rockefeller Foundation and Rockefeller University.
John D. Rockefeller Jr. - dramatically expanded the Rockefeller Foundation and Rockefeller University. He also bought and then donated the land in Manhattan upon which the United Nations headquarters was built.
John D. Rockefeller 3rd ~ major third-generation Rockefeller philanthropist and founder of the Asia Society (1956), the Population Council (1952) and a reconstituted Japan Society, he was chairman of the Rockefeller Foundation for twenty years. He established the Rockefeller Public Service Awards in 1958. Among his many other achievements, he was the driving force behind the construction of the landmark Lincoln Center, built between 1959 and 1966, in New York City.
J.K. Rowling President of One Parent Families, and advocate for social equity.
Shakira ~ founder of Pies Descalzos Foundation.
Sir Run Run Shaw ~ founder of the Shaw Prize Foundation.
Gary Sinise ~ co-founder of Operation Iraqi Children.
George Soros ~ estimated to have donated more than USD$6 billion, often through the Open Society Institute and Soros Foundations.
Ellen Gates Starr ~ co-founder of Hull House.
Levi Strauss ~ Gave to many notable foundations of his time. He also gave to many Jewish churches and organizations (he was Jewish himself).
Belinda Stronach - co-founder of Spread the Net
Mother Teresa ~ founded the Missionaries of Charity. Her work among the poverty-stricken in Calcutta made her one of the world's most famous people.
Cornelius Vanderbilt ~ funded Vanderbilt University.
William Henry Vanderbilt ~ cofounder of the Metropolitan Opera.
Oprah Winfrey ~ estimated donations above USD$300 million, and founder of Oprah's Angel Network.
Steve Wozniak ~ provided all the money, as well as a good amount of on-site technical support, for the technology program for the Los Gatos School district. Founder of Unuson.

Sunday, September 23, 2007

Database transaction
A database transaction is a unit of interaction with a database management system or similar system that is treated in a coherent and reliable way independent of other transactions. In general, a database transaction must be atomic, meaning that it must be either entirely completed or aborted. Ideally, a database system will guarantee the properties of Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation and Durability (ACID) for each transaction. In practice, these properties are often relaxed somewhat to provide better performance.
In some systems, transactions are also called LUWs for Logical Units of Work.

Purpose of transaction
Databases that support transactions are called transactional databases. Most modern relational database management systems fall into this category.

Saturday, September 22, 2007

The Buena Vista Social Club was a members club in Havana, Cuba that held dances and musical activities, becoming a popular location for musicians to meet and play during the 1940s. In the 1990s, nearly 40 years after the club was closed, it inspired a recording made by Cuban musician Juan de Marcos González and American guitarist Ry Cooder with traditional Cuban musicians, some of whom were veterans who had performed at the club during the height of its popularity.
The recording, named Buena Vista Social Club after the Havana institution, became an international success, and the ensemble was encouraged to perform with a full line-up in Amsterdam in 1998. German director Wim Wenders captured the performance on film, followed by a second concert in Carnegie Hall, New York City for a documentary that included interviews with the musicians conducted in Havana. Wenders's film, also called Buena Vista Social Club, was released to critical acclaim, receiving an Academy Award nomination for Best Documentary feature and winning numerous accolades including Best Documentary at the European Film Awards.
The success of both the album and film sparked a revival of international interest in traditional Cuban music and Latin American music in general. Some of the Cuban performers later released well-received solo albums and recorded collaborations with international stars from different musical genres. The "Buena Vista Social Club" name became an umbrella term to describe these performances and releases, and has been likened to a brand label that encapsulates Cuba's "musical golden age" between the 1930s and 1950s. The new success was fleeting for the most recognizable artists in the ensemble: Compay Segundo, Rubén González, and Ibrahim Ferrer, who died at the ages of ninety-five, eighty-four, and seventy-eight respectively; Segundo and González in 2003, then Ferrer in 2005.

A total of twenty musicians contributed to the recording including Ry Cooder's son Joachim Cooder, (b. 1978) who at the time was a 19 year old scholar of Latin percussion and provided drums for the band. Ry Cooder himself played slide guitar on several songs and helped produce and mix the album, afterwards describing the sessions as "the greatest musical experience of my life".

Buena Vista Social Club Musicians

Main article: Buena Vista Social Club (film) Film
The first performances by the full line up of "Buena Vista Social Club", including Cooder, were those filmed by Wenders in Amsterdam and New York. Other international shows and T.V. appearances soon followed with varying line ups. Ibrahim Ferrer and Rubén González performed together in Los Angeles in 1998 to an audience that included Alanis Morissette, Sean Combs, and Jennifer Lopez, Ferrer dedicating the song Mami Me Gusto to the Hispanic Lopez.

The international success of the Buena Vista Social Club generated a revival of interest in traditional Cuban music and Latin American music as a whole.

Impact and analysis

Buena Vista Social Club (September 16, 1997). World Circuit / Nonesuch Records. Discography
The below discography includes solo albums released since the first Buena Vista Social Club album that feature the musicians in the ensemble, and that are considered to be under the "Buena Vista Social Club" aegis.

Rubén González

  • Introducing... Rubén González (September 17, 1997). Elektra/Asylum.
    (Guest Musicians include Ry Cooder, Manuel Galbán, Orlando "Cachaito" Lopez and Manuel "El Guajiro" Mirabal.) Other releases

    Further reading

    Tropicana Club

Friday, September 21, 2007

Cabinet of the United Kingdom
This article is part of the series: Politics and government of the United Kingdom
In the politics of the United Kingdom, the Cabinet is a formal body composed of the most senior government ministers chosen by the Prime Minister. Most members are heads of government departments with the title "Secretary of State". Formal members of the Cabinet are drawn exclusively from the House of Commons and the House of Lords.
In traditional constitutional theory, in the British system of government, the Cabinet is the key formal decision making body of the executive. This interpretation was originally put across in the work of nineteenth century constitutionalists such as Walter Bagehot (who described the Cabinet as the 'efficient secret' of the British political system in his book 'The English Constitution'). The political and decision-making authority of the cabinet has been gradually reduced over the last several decades, with some claiming its role has been usurped by a 'Prime-Ministerial' (i.e. more 'presidential') government.
Originally, the Cabinet merely served as a sub-committee to the Privy Council. However, the modern Cabinet system was set up by Prime Minister David Lloyd George during his premeirship of 1916-22, with a Cabinet Office and Secretariat, committee structures, Minutes, and a clearer relationship with departmental Cabinet Ministers. This development grew out of the exigencies of the First World War, where faster and better co-ordinated decisions across Government were seen as crucial part of the war effort. Lloyd George himself once said, "War is too important to be left to the generals."
Decisions on mass conscription, co-ordination world-wide with other governments across international theatres, armament production tied into a general war strategy that could be developed and overseen from an inner "War Cabinet", 10 Downing Street, are all clear elements retained today. As the country went through successive crises after the 1922-1926 General Strike, the Great Depression of 1929-32; the rise of communist Bolshevism after 1917 and Fascism after 1922; the Spanish Civil War 1936 onwards; the invasion of Abyssinia 1936; the League of Nations Crisis which followed; the re-armament and resurgence of Germany from 1933, plus the lead into another World War - all demanded a highly organized and centralized Government based around the Cabinet.
This centralization inevitably enhanced the power of the Prime Minister, who moved from being the primus inter pares of the Asquith Cabinets of 1906 onwards, with a glittering set of huge individual talents leading powerful departments, to the dominating figures of Lloyd George, Stanley Baldwin and Winston Churchill.

Sovereign: Queen Elizabeth II

  • State Opening of Parliament
    House of Lords

    • Lord Speaker: Baroness Hayman
      House of Commons

      • Speaker: Michael Martin
        Prime Minister's Questions
        Her Majesty's Government
        The Privy Council

        • Prime Minister: Gordon Brown
          Chancellor: Alistair Darling
          Foreign Secretary: David Miliband
          Home Secretary: Jacqui Smith
          Lord Chancellor: Jack Straw
          Full list of members
          Government departments
          The Civil Service
          Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition

          • Leader: David Cameron
            Shadow Cabinet
            Courts of the United Kingdom

            • Courts of England and Wales
              Courts of Northern Ireland
              Courts of Scotland
              Constituent countries
              Politics of Scotland

              • Scottish Parliament
                Scottish Executive
                Politics of Wales

                • National Assembly for Wales
                  Welsh Assembly Government
                  Politics of Northern Ireland

                  • Northern Ireland Assembly
                    Northern Ireland Executive
                    Politics of England

                    • English Regional Assemblies
                      Reserved matters
                      Local government
                      Greater London Authority
                      Elections: 2001 - 2005 - 54th

                      • Parliament constituencies
                        Political parties
                        Human rights
                        Foreign relations
                        EU Politics Historical
                        The Prime Minister uses royal prerogative powers of patronage to appoint and dismiss members of the Cabinet and therefore requires the formal approval of the monarch for any appointment to the Cabinet.
                        Any change to the composition of the Cabinet involving more than one appointment is customarily referred to as a reshuffle. The total number of ministers allowed to be paid as "Cabinet ministers" (22) is governed by statute (Ministerial and Other Salaries Act 1975), and this has caused successive Prime Ministers problems, and accounts for some of the unusual regular attendees at Cabinet, who are not paid as "Cabinet ministers". The numbers often fluctuate between 21 and 24.
                        The Cabinet has always been led by the Prime Minister, although the role of the Prime Minister is traditionally described as primus inter pares, first among equals, though clearly this is a nominal status rather than a reality—after all, it is the Prime Minister alone who appoints/dismisses Cabinet Ministers and sets the agenda for Cabinet individually and through the Cabinet Secretary. It was Tony Blair's decision alone to reduce Cabinet meetings to once-weekly from Tuesdays and Thursdays, just as he chose to consolidate the Tuesday/Thursday Prime Minister's Questions in the Commons to once-weekly on Wednesdays, although remaining exposed for the same total time. So, the extent to which the Prime Minister is collegial depends on political conditions and individual personalities.
                        In formal constitutional terms, the Cabinet is a committee of the Privy Council. All Cabinet members are created Privy Councillors on appointment and therefore use the style "The Right Honourable". As members of the House of Lords are "The Right Honourable" or hold a higher style as of right, Privy Councillors in the Lords place the letters "PC" after their names to distinguish themselves.
                        Recent custom has been that the composition of the Cabinet has been made up almost entirely of members of the House of Commons. The office of Leader of the House of Lords is a member of the House of Lords, but apart from this one post it is now rare for a peer to sit in the Cabinet. The role of Lord Chancellor was, until recently, always occupied by a member of the House of Lords, however since the creation of the office of Lord Speaker this is no longer necessary and the current post holder is Jack Straw, a member of the House of Commons. The former Leader of the Lords, Lady Amos, was the last peer to sit in any other Cabinet post, as Secretary of State for International Development from May to October 2003. The last Secretary of State for a major department drawn from the Lords was Lord Young of Graffham, serving between 1985 and 1989 as Secretary of State for Employment until 1987 and Secretary of State for Trade and Industry until 1989. Interestingly, the number of junior ministers who are peers has increased since 1997, though being a peer can be a block to Cabinet-advancement.
                        A small number of other ministers below Secretary of State level may also be included in Cabinet meetings as a matter of course. The Attorney General (currently Baroness Scotland), together with the chair of the governing parliamentary party, are customarily included and other members of the Government can be invited at the Prime Minister's discretion.
                        In recent years, non-members of HM Government have been permitted by the Prime Minister to attend Cabinet meetings on a regular basis, notably Alastair Campbell in his capacity as Director of Communications and Strategy between 1997 and 2003, and Jonathan Powell, Tony Blair's Chief of Staff, with a distinctly separate role from the Cabinet Secretary/Head of the Civil Service.

                        The Cabinet meets on a regular basis, usually weekly on a Thursday morning, notionally to discuss the most important issues of government policy, and to make decisions. The length of meetings vary according to the style of the Prime Minister and political conditions, but today meetings can be as little as 30 minutes in length, which suggests ratification of decisions taken in committee or in bi-lateral discussions between the Prime Minister and individual departmental Cabinet colleagues, with discussion in Cabinet itself somewhat curtailed.
                        The Cabinet has numerous sub-committees which focus particular policy areas, particularly ones which cut across several ministerial responsibilities, and therefore need coordination. These may be permanent committees or set up for a short duration to look at particular issues ("ad hoc committees"). Junior Ministers are also often members of these committees, in addition to Secretaries of State. The transaction of government business through meetings of the Cabinet and its many committees is administered by a small secretariat within the Cabinet Office.
                        In practice, and increasingly in recent years, weekly meetings of the full Cabinet have tended to be more concerned with the exchange of information and ratification of decisions, major decisions being taken by Cabinet Committees or in informal groups, often bi-laterals between the Prime Minister and an individual minister.
                        Most Prime Ministers have had a so-called "kitchen cabinet" consisting of their own trusted advisers who may be Cabinet members but are often trusted personal advisers on their own staff. In recent governments (generally from Margaret Thatcher), and especially in that of Tony Blair, it has been reported that many, or even all major decisions have been said to be made before cabinet meetings. This suggestion has been made by former ministers such as Clare Short and Chris Smith, in the media, and was made clear in the Butler Review, where Blair's style of "sofa government" was censured.

                        Meetings of the Cabinet
                        Two key constitutional conventions regarding the accountability of the cabinet to Parliament exist, collective cabinet responsibility and individual ministerial responsibility. These are derived from the fact the members of the cabinet are members of Parliament, and therefore accountable to it, because Parliament is sovereign. Cabinet collective responsibility means that members of the cabinet make decisions collectively, and are therefore responsible for the consequences of these decisions collectively. Therefore, when a vote of no confidence is passed in Parliament, every minister and government official drawn from Parliament is expected to resign from the executive. So, logically, cabinet ministers who disagree with major decisions are expected to resign, as, to take a recent example, Robin Cook did over the decision to attack Iraq in 2003.
                        Individual ministerial responsibility is the convention that in their capacity as head of department, a minister is responsible for the actions, and therefore the failings too, of their department. Since the civil service is permanent and anonymous, under circumstances of gross incompetence in their department, a minister 'must' resign. Perhaps surprisingly, this is relatively rare in practice, perhaps because, whilst many would consider incompetence more harmful than personal scandal, it is of less interest to more populist elements of the media, and less susceptible to unequivocal proof. The closest example in recent years is perhaps Estelle Morris who resigned as Secretary of State for Education and Skills in 2002 of her own volition (following severe problems and inaccuracies in the marking of A-level exams). The circumstances under which this convention is followed are of course not possible to strictly define, and depend on many other factors. If a minister's reputation is seen to be tarnished by a personal scandal (for example when it was revealed that David Mellor had an extra-marital affair) they very often resign. This often follows a short period of intense media and opposition pressure for them to do so. In general, despite numerous scandals, in Britain cases of serious corruption (e.g. acceptance of bribes) are relatively rare in comparison with many other democracies. One reason is because of the strength of the whip system and political parties in comparison to individual politicians. This means MPs and ministers have little capacity to be influenced by external groups offering money.
                        Questions can be tabled for Cabinet ministers in either houses of Parliament (a process called interpellation in political science), which can either be for written or oral reply. Cabinet ministers must answer them, either themselves or through a deputy. Written answers, which are usually more specific and detailed than oral questions are usually written by a civil servant. Answers to written and oral questions are published in Hansard. Parliament cannot dismiss individual ministers (though members may of course call for their resignation) but the House of Commons is able to determine the fate of the entire Government. If a vote of no confidence in the Government passes, then The Queen will seek to restore confidence either by a dissolution of Parliament and the election of a new one, or by the acceptance of the resignation of her entire government collectively.
                        In the United Kingdom's parliamentary system, the executive is not separate from the legislature, since Cabinet members are drawn from Parliament. Moreover the executive tends to dominate the legislature for several reasons:
                        The combined effect of the Prime Minister's ability to control Cabinet by circumventing effective discussion in Cabinet and the executive's ability to dominate parliamentary proceedings places the British Prime Minister in a position of great power that has been likened to an elective dictatorship (a phrase coined by Lord Hailsham in 1976). The relative impotence of Parliament to hold the Government of the day to account is often cited by the UK media as a justification for the vigour with which they question and challenge the Government.
                        In contemporary times, the nature of the cabinet has been criticized by some, largely because several Prime Ministers are perceived as acting in a "presidential" manner. Such an accusation was made at Tony Blair as he was believed to have refrained from using the Cabinet as a collective decision-making body. These actions caused concern as it contravened the convention of the PM being "first among equals". In this sense, he was acting like a US President, who (unlike the British PM) is not constitutionally bound to make decisions collectively with a cabinet. Margaret Thatcher was also noted as being "presidential", in the capacity that she "forced" her own viewpoints onto her Cabinet. However the power that a Prime Minster has over his or her Cabinet colleagues is directly proportional to the amount of support that they have with their political parties and this is often related to whether the party considers them to be an electoral asset or liability. Further when a party is divided into factions a Prime Minster may be forced to include other powerful party members in the Cabinet for party political cohesion.

                        the first-past-the-post voting system (which tends to give a large majority to the governing party)
                        the power of the Government Whips (whose role is to ensure party members vote in accordance with an agreed line)
                        the "payroll vote" (a term which refers to the fact that members of the governing party who are on the government payroll (e.g. as junior ministers) would be dismissed if they voted against the government). Current cabinet

Thursday, September 20, 2007

List of Swiss people
This is a list of famous Swiss and notable people from or resident in Switzerland and cantons forming present-day Switzerland.
See also: Swiss (people)


Ursula Andress (born 1936), actress
Bruno Ganz (born 1941), actor
Mathias Gnädinger (born 1941), actor
Grock (1880-1959), clown
Irène Jacob (born 1966), actress
Liselotte Pulver (born 1929)
Emil Steinberger (born 1933), comedian
Caterina Valente (born 1931), singer, actress Actors

Jacques-Laurent Agasse (1767-1849), painter
Cuno Peter Amiet (1868-1961)
Albert Anker (1831-1910)
Jean Arp (1886-1966), sculptor, painter and poet
René Auberjonois (1872-1957), painter
François Bocion (1828-1890), painter
Arnold Böcklin (1827-1901), painter
Karl Bodmer (1809-1893), painter of the American West
Mark Staff Brandl (born 1955), painter, installation artist, and critic
Frank Buchser (1828-1890), painter
Alexandre Calame (1810-1864), painter
Vivian Crettol (born 1973), painter
Jean Crotti (1878-1958), painter
Hans Erni (born 1909)
Fischli & Weiss (born 1946 & 1952), artist duo
Johann Caspar Füssli (1706-1782), portrait painter
Henry Fuseli (Johann Heinrich Füssli) (1741-1825), painter
Johann Kaspar Füssli (1743-1786), entomologist
Salomon Gessner (1730-1788)
Alberto Giacometti (1901-1966), sculptor, painter
H. R. Giger (born 1940), illustrator
Anton Graff (1736-1813), painter
Eugène Grasset (1845-1917), decorative artist
Willi Gutmann (born 1927), sculptor
Ferdinand Hodler (1853-1918), painter
Max Huber (1919-1992), graphic designer
Angelica Kauffmann (1741-1807), painter
Paul Klee (1879-1940), painter
Rudolf Koller (1828-1905), painter
Niklaus Manuel (1484-1530), painter
Roger Pfund (born 1943), painter, graphic designer
James Pradier (1790-1852), sculptor
Oskar Reinhart (1885-1965), collector
Iris von Roten-Meyer (1917-1990), lawyer and artist
Niki de Saint Phalle (1930-2002), sculptor, became Swiss in 1971
Théophile Steinlen (1859-1923), painter and printmaker
Sophie Taeuber-Arp (1889-1943), painter, sculptor
Jean Tinguely (1925-1991), kinetic artist
Rodolphe Toepffer (1799-1846)
Félix Vallotton (1865-1925), painter
Marianne von Werefkin (1860-1938), painter Art

Oskar Bider (1891-1919)
Henri Dufaux (1879-1980)
Armand Dufaux (1883-1941)
Walter Mittelholzer (1894-1937), pilot, director Ad Astra, Swissair
Claude Nicollier (born 1944), pilot, astronaut
Bertrand Piccard (born 1958), psychiatrist and balloonist
Yves Rossy (born 1959), pilot, "jet-man"
Eduard Spelterini (1852-1931), balloonist Aviation

Carl Franz Bally (1821-1899), founder of the Bally Shoe company
Abraham Louis Breguet (1747-1823), watchmaker
François-Louis Cailler (1796-1852), chocolatier
Louis Chevrolet (1878-1941), automobile engineer
Alfred Escher (1819-1882), statesman, businessman and railway constructor
Hans Conrad Escher von der Linth (1767-1823), architect of the Lint melioration
Louis Favre (1826-1879), engineer of the Gotthard tunnel
Nicolas Hayek (born 1928), entrepreneur, chairman, Swatch Group
Antoine LeCoultre, entrepreneur and watchmaker
Jürg Marquard (born 1945), magazine publisher and Swiss television star (Traumjob)
Henri Nestlé (1814-1890), founder of Nestlé S.A.
Georges Edouard Piaget (1855-1931), watchmaker
Beat Fischer von Reichenbach (1641-1698), held postal monopoly in Berne
Daniel Jean-Richard (1665-1741), watchmaker
Philippe Suchard (1797-1884), chocolatier
William de Vigier (1912-2003), entrepreneur Business

Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913), linguist Mathematics

Pierre Victor Besenval de Bronstatt (1721-1791)
Guillaume-Henri Dufour (1787-1875), General, geographer
Joachim Forrer (1782-1833)
Henri Guisan (1874-1960), General during WWII
Hans Herzog (1819-1894), General 1870-1871
Antoine-Henri Jomini (1779-1869), General, military writer
Christophe Keckeis (born 1945), Chief of the Armed Forces (since 2004)
Elmar Mäder, commander of the Swiss Guard (2002-)
Franz Ludwig Pfyffer von Wyher (1716-1802)
Pius Segmüller (born 1952), commander of the Swiss Guard (1998-2002)
Theophil Sprecher von Bernegg (1850-1927)
Ulrich Wille (1848-1925), General during WWI Military

Mia Aegerter (born 1976), pop musician
Martin Eric Ain, Celtic Frost bassist
Ernest Ansermet (1883-1969), conductor
Lys Assia (born 1926), singer
Urs Bühler (born 1971), tenor, member of Il Divo
Chiara Banchini (born 1946), violinist, conductor
Dominik Burkhalter (born 1975), bandleader, composer, drummer
Michel Corboz (born 1934), conductor
Claudia D'Addio, pop musician, Eurovision Song Contest 2006 and MusicStars contestant
Emile Jaques-Dalcroze (1865-1950), musician, educator, developer of Eurhythmics
Philippe Decourroux (born 1962), Christian singer and drummer.
Rene Baumann (born 1968), musician, dancer, known as DJ Bobo
Edwin Fischer (1886-1960), pianist and conductor
Thomas Gabriel Fischer (born 19??), known as Celtic Frost's Tom Warrior
Peter-Lukas Graf (born 1929), conductor
Ernst Haefliger (born 1919), tenor
Heinz Holliger (born 1939), oboe
Arthur Honegger (1892-1955), composer
Philippe Huttenlocher (born 1942), bass
Christian Jacob (born 1958), jazz pianist
Michael Jarrell (born 1958), composer
Daniel Kandlbauer, pop musician and MusicStars contestant
Kuno Lauener (born 1961), leadsinger of Bernese rock band Züri West
Pepe Lienhard (born 1939), band leader and saxophone player
Frank Martin (1890-1974), composer
Othmar Schoeck (1886-1957), composer
Ludwig Senfl (1486-1542/3), Renaissance composer
Eric Tappy (born 1931), tenor
Silvio Varviso (1924-2006), conductor, especially of opera
Andreas Vollenweider (born 1953), harpist
Alberich Zwyssig (1808-1854), priest, composer of the Swiss Psalm
Roland Zoss (born 1951), rockpoetry musician
Peter Giger (born 1939), percussionist and bandleader Music

Benjamin Constant (1767-1830)
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778), philosopher, author
Jeanne Hersch (1910-2000), philosopher
Hans A. Pestalozzi (1929-2004), social critic
Hans Saner (born 1934), philosopher
Henri Lauener (1933-2002), philosopher
Peter Bieri (born 1944), philosopher, author
Dominik Perler (born 1965), philosopher Philosophy

Ludwig Binswanger (1881-1966), psychologist
Eugen Bleuler (1857-1940), psychiatrist
Gustav Hans Graber (1893-1983), psychologist and psychoanalyst
C.G. Jung (1875-1961), psychiatrist
Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (1746-1827), pedagogue
Oskar Pfister (1873-1956), psychologist and pastor
Jean Piaget (1896-1980), psychologist
Hermann Rorschach (1884-1922), Psychology and Pedagogy
See also:

Étienne Clavière (1735-1793)
Élie Ducommun (1833-1906), 1902 Nobel Peace Prize
Henri Dunant (1828-1910), Founder of the Red Cross 1901 Nobel Peace Prize
Nicholas of Flüe (1417-1487), diplomat, hermit, Catholic saint
Albert Gallatin (1761-1849), US Secretary of the Treasury, diplomat
Albert Gobat (1843-1914), 1902 Nobel Peace Prize
Jörg Jenatsch (1596-1639), pastor, Protestant politician
Josef Leu (1800-1845), Catholic politician from Lucerne
Jean-Paul Marat (1743-1793), revolutionary
Napoleon III (1808-1873) (naturalized in 1832)
Jacques Necker (1732-1804), statesman and finance minister of Louis XVI
Charles Pictet de Rochemont (1755-1824), statesman, diplomat
Pompejus von Planta-Wildenberg (1569-1621)
Rudolf von Planta (died 1640), judge in lower Engadin
Rudolf von Planta-Wildenberg (1603-1641)
Fritz Platten (1883-1942), Communist
Nelly Wicky (born 1923), former member of the National Council
List of members of the Swiss Federal Council (since 1848)
List of members of the Swiss National Council (current)
List of members of the Swiss Council of States (current)
List of Presidents of the Swiss Confederation (since 1848)
List of Presidents of the Swiss National Council (since 1848)
List of Presidents of the Swiss Council of States (since 1848)
List of Federal Chancellors of Switzerland (since 1803)
List of Presidents of the Swiss Diet (before 1848)
List of mayors of Baden, Berne, Fribourg
List of mayors of Geneva, Lausanne, Lucerne
List of mayors of Lugano, Schaffhausen, St. Gallen
List of mayors of Uster, Winterthur, Zofingen, Zurich
List of 2005 office-holders in Switzerland
List of the first female holders of political offices: Switzerland Politics

Jakob Abbadie (1654-1727), Protestant preacher
Gilberto Agustoni (born 1922), cardinal
Jacob Amman (17th century)
Karl Barth (1886-1968)
Theodore Beza (1519-1605), reformer in Geneva
Heinrich Bullinger (1504-1575), reformer in Zurich
Georges Cardinal Cottier (born 1922), former professor of theology
Niklaus Manuel Deutsch (1484-1530) painter, dramatician, politician and reformer in Berne
Johann Augustanus Faber (c.1470-c.1530), theolgian and historian
William Farel (1489-1565), reformer in Geneva
Theodosius Florentini (1808-1865)
Gaston Frommel (1862-1906)
Berchtold Haller (1492-1536), reformer in Berne
Karl Rudolf Hagenbach (1801-1874)
Johann Jakob Herzog (1805-1882)
Hans Küng (born 1928), theologian
Johann Kaspar Lavater (1741-1801), pastor and physiognomist
Oswald Myconius (1488-1552)
Johannes Oecolampadius (1482-1531)
Frère Roger (1915-2005), founder of Taizé
Philip Schaff (1819-1893)
Henri Cardinal Schwery (born 1932), former Bishop of Sion
Guichard Tavelli (died 1375), Bishop of Sion
Alexandre Rodolphe Vinet (1797-1847), theologian and critic
Pierre Viret (1511-1571), reformer in Vaud Canton
Johann Jakob Wettstein (1693-1754), theologian
John Joachim Zubly (Hans Joachim Züblin), (1724-1781), pastor, delegate to the Continental Congress
Huldrych Zwingli (1484-1531), reformer in Zurich Religion


Firmin Abauzit (1679-1767), scientist
Alexander Emanuel Agassiz (1835-1910), American man of science
Louis Agassiz (1807-1873), work on ice ages, glaciers
Jacob Amsler (1823-1912), mathematician and inventor of measuring instruments
Werner Arber (born 1929), 1978 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
Johann Georg Baiter (1801-1877), philologist
Adolph Francis Alphonse Bandelier (1840-1914) archaeologist
Jean-François Bergier (born 1931), historian
Eugene Bleuler (1857-1940), psychiatrist
Felix Bloch (born 1905), 1952 Nobel Prize in Physics
Charles Bonnet (1720-1793), botanist
Daniel Bovet (born 1907), 1957 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
Joost Bürgi (1552-1632), mathematician and watchmaker
Johann Büttikofer (1850-1929), zoologist
Jean-André Deluc (1727-1817), geologist
Albert Einstein (1879-1955), 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics
Richard R. Ernst (born 1933), 1991 Nobel Prize in Chemistry
Edmond H. Fischer (born 1920), 1992 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
Auguste Forel (1848-1931), myrmecologist, psychiatrist, neurologist
François-Alphonse Forel (1841-1912), pioneer in the study of lakes
Johann Kaspar Füssli (1743-1786), entomologist A-F

Conrad Gessner (1516-1565)
Ursula Geiger (born 1957)
Jules Gonin (1870-1935), ophthalmologist
Charles-Edouard Guillaume (1861-1938), 1920 Nobel Prize in Physics
Albrecht von Haller (1708-1777)
Anna Heer (1863-1918), physician
Walter Hess (1881-1973), 1949 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
Carl Hilty (1833-1909), jurist
Albert Hofmann (1906-), chemist, discoverer of d-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)
Eugen Huber (1849-1923), jurist
François Huber (1750-1831), naturalist
Paul Karrer (1889-1971), 1937 Nobel Prize in Chemistry
Emil Theodor Kocher (1841-1917), 1909 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac (1817-1894), chemist
Michel Mayor (born 1942), astronomer
Johannes von Müller (1752-1809), historian
K. Alex Müller (born 1927), 1987 Nobel Prize in Physics
Paul Müller (1899-1965), 1948 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
Johann Caspar von Orelli (1787-1849) G-O

Paracelsus (1493-1541), (Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim), alchemist
Wolfgang Pauli (1900-1958), 1945 Nobel Prize in Physics
Jean Piaget (1896-1980), psychologist
Auguste Piccard (1884-1962), physicist and balloonist
Bertrand Piccard (born 1958), psychiatrist and balloonist
Jacques Piccard (born 1922), engineer and underwater explorer
Jean Piccard (1884-1963), balloonist
François-Jules Pictet de la Rive (1809-1872), zoologist and paleontologist
Raoul Pictet (1846-1929), physicist
Adolf Portmann (1897-1982), zoologist
Vladimir Prelog (1906-1998), 1975 Nobel Prize in Chemistry
Didier Queloz (born 1966), astronomer
Tadeus Reichstein (1897-1996), chemist, 1950 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
Eugene Renevier (1831-1906), geologist
Heinrich Rohrer (born 1933), 1986 Nobel Prize in Physics
Leopold Ruzicka (1887-1976), 1939 Nobel Prize in Chemistry
Horace-Bénédict de Saussure (1740-1799), botanist
Johann Jakob Scheuchzer (1672-1733), Swiss savant
Louis Secretan (1758-1839), mycologist
Jack Steinberger (born 1921), 1988 Nobel Prize in Physics
Alfred Werner (1866-1919), 1913 Nobel Prize in Chemistry
Niklaus Wirth (born 1934), computer scientist, ACM Turing Award winner, inventor of the Pascal programming language
Kurt Wüthrich (born 1938), 2002 Nobel Prize in Chemistry
Daniel Albert Wyttenbach (1746-1820)
Alexandre Yersin (1894-1943), physician, isolates the Yersinia pestis
Rolf M. Zinkernagel (born 1944), 1996 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
Fritz Zwicky (1898-1974), astronomer
Theodor Zwinger (1533-1588), scholar P-Z

Paul Accola (born 1967), skiing champion
David Aebischer (born 1978), NHL goaltender for the Montreal Canadiens
Daniel Albrecht (born 1983), Alpine skier
Simon Ammann (born 1981), gold medallist in Ski jumping at the 2002 Winter Olympics
Madeleine Berthod (born 1931), 1956 gold medallist in Downhill skiing
Denise Biellmann (born 1962), World champion figure skater
Sepp Blatter (born 1935), FIFA president
Ursula Bruhin (born 1970), snowboarder
Claudio Castagnoli (born 1980), pro wrestler
Stéphane Chapuisat (born 1969), footballer
Oscar Egg (born 1890), cyclist
Roger Federer (born 1981), tennis champion: 11-time Grand Slam singles champion
Michela Figini (born 1966), Alpine skiing champion
Marcel Fischer (born 1978), Fencing champion, gold medallist in Athens Olympics
Alexander Frei (born 1979), footballer
Tanja Frieden (born 1976), snowboarder
Martin Gerber (born 1974), NHL goaltender for the Ottawa Senators
Arnold Gerschwiler (born c. 1914), skater
Hans Gerschwiler (born c. 1921), World champion figure skater
Jack Gerschwiler (1898-2000), coach
Franz Heinzer (born 1962), Alpine skier
Stéphane Henchoz (born 1974), footballer
Erika Hess (born 1962), Alpine skiing champion
Martina Hingis (born 1980), tennis champion: 5-time Grand Slam singles champion
Jakob Hlasek (born 1964), tennis player
Ambrosi Hoffmann (born 1977), Alpine skiing medalist
Shihan Andy Hug (1964-2000), Karate and Kickboxing champion
Patrick Hürlimann (born 1963), Olympic curling champion
Bruno Kernen (born 1972), Alpine skier, Bronze medalist and former World Champion in downhill
Bruno Kernen (born 1961), Alpine skier, winner of the 1983 Kitzbühel downhill race
Hugo Koblet (1925-1964), cycling champion
Franz Krienbühl (1929-2002), speed skater
Andreas Küttel (born 1979), ski jumper
Peter Lüscher (born 1956), Alpine skiing champion
Stéphane Lambiel (born 1985), figure skater, Olympic silver medalist
Daniela Meuli (born 1981), snowboarder
Peter Müller (born 1957), Alpine skiing champion
Lise-Marie Morerod (born 1956), Alpine skiing champion
Marie-Theres Nadig (born 1954), Alpine skiing champion
Maya Pedersen (born 1972), skeleton athlete
Manuela Pesko (born 1978), snowboarder
Walter Prager (1910-1984), Alpine skiing champion
Tony Rominger (born 1961), cyclist who won major tours four times in his career
Marc Rosset (born 1970), tennis player, gold medallist in Barcelona Olympics
Bernhard Russi (born 1948), Alpine skiing champion
Martina Schild (born 1981), Downhill skiing champion
Hedy Schlunegger (1923-2003), downhill Olympic champion of 1948
Vreni Schneider (born 1964), Alpine skiing champion
Patty Schnyder (born 1978), professional tennis player
Thabo Sefolosha (born 1984), NBA player for the Chicago Bulls
Philippe Senderos (born 1985), footballer
Mark Streit (born 1977), NHL defenceman for the Montreal Canadiens
Alain Sutter (born 1968), footballer
Kubilay Türkyilmaz (born 1967), footballer
Maria Walliser (born 1963), Alpine skiing champion
Jean Wicki (born 1933), gold medallist in bobsleigh
Hakan Yakın (born 1977), footballer
Murat Yakin (born 1974), footballer
Heidi Zurbriggen (born 1967), skier
Matthias Zurbriggen (1856-1917), mountain guide and Alpinist
Pirmin Zurbriggen (born 1963), Alpine skiing champion
Silvan Zurbriggen (born 1981), skier Writers
See also: Swiss longevity recordholders

Crown Princess of Brunei Pengiran Anak Sarah (born 1987), wife of Crown Prince Al-Muhtadee Billah, half Swiss and half Bruneian.
Prince Sadruddhin Aga Khan (1933-2003), UN High Commissioner for Refugees, longtime Swiss resident
Othmar Ammann (1879-1965), civil engineer, bridge engineer to the New York Port Authority
Nick Auf der Maur (1942-1998), Canadian journalist, Swiss parents
Maximilian Bircher-Benner (1867-1939), physician and Muesli inventor
Johann Georg Bodmer (1786-1864), inventor
Johann Jakob Bodmer (1698-1783)
Jacob Burckhardt (1818-1897), art historian
Johann Ludwig Burckhardt (1784-1814), traveller and orientalist
Arthur Cohn (born 1927), film producer, received six Oscars
Philipp Emanuel von Fellenberg (1771-1844)
Marc Forster (born 1969), film director
Marie Grossholtz (1761-1850), known as Madame Tussaud
Paul Grueninger (1891-1972), commander of police and humanitarian
Ingvar Kamprad (born 1926), founder of IKEA, Swiss resident since 1976
Carl Lutz (1895-1975), diplomat and humanitarian
Robert Maillart (1872-1940), Civil Engineer, inventor of many concrete bridge techniques
Christoph Meili (born 1968), whistleblower
Christian Menn (born 1927), Civil Engineer
Max Miedinger (1910-1980), typeface designer, inventor of Helvetica
Susanna Orelli (1845-1939), humanitarian
Archibald Reiss (1876-1929), criminologist
Beat Richner (born 1947), pediatrician, founder of children's hospitals in Cambodia
Niklaus Riggenbach (1817-1899), engineer
Anna Ringier (1896-2006), oldest living Swiss (as of 2006)
Frithjof Schuon (1907-1998), Sufi writer, born in Basel
John Sutter (1803-1880), California settler
Alain Tanner (born 1929), film director
Marrianne Tinker (born 1934), Ex-pat